Thursday, December 5, 2019
Child Obesity Middle and Low Income Countries
Question: Discuss about theChild Obesityfor Middle and Low Income Countries. Answer: Introduction Childhood obesity has become one of the major social health challenges of the twenty-first century. It used to be a public health concern of high-income countries. But it is now a worldwide problem and at present progressively distressing several middle and low-income countries, predominantly in urban areas. The pervasiveness has amplified at a frightening percentage. Juvenile obesity has become more than double in children and quadrupled in teenagers in the previous thirty years. Globally, in the year 2013, the total of obese children below age five was estimated to be more than forty-two million. Near about thirty-one millions of these children are residents of developing countries. Obesity is triggered by inequality between calorie consumption and energy used. Different other factors such as hereditary, behavioral, and environmental can also causeobesity in children. Obese and overweight children are probable to remain obese into later life and more possible to develop non-communi cable ailments such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes at an earlier age. But these diseases are generally preventable. Thus, high priority is needed for the prevention of childhood obesity. The best strategy for decreasing childhood obesity is to develop diet habits and exercise planning of the entire family. Reducing and preventing childhood obesity aids to protect the wellbeing of the children today and in the future. Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity is a major health complication that harmfully impacts the infants and adolescents. Obesity arises when children are much above the standard weight for their age and height (Wang et al. 2013). Frequency of childhood obesity is rising at an alarming rate in many countries, including Australia, America, and England (Lobstein et al. 2015). In Australia, 1 in 5 kids and adolescents are either obese or overweight. The statistics of overweight kids in Australia has doubled in current years, with a quarter of kids considered obese or overweight. At the existing rate, it is projected that sixty-five percent of Australian children will be obese or overweight by the year 2020. This escalation in the figure of overweight children is distressing, as it can cause health complications and can lead to social jeopardize.Main reasons of obesity in Australian children consist of harmful diet adoptions, deficiency of physical activities and nutritional habits of the family (Aihw.gov.au 2016). Causes Childhood obesity can be triggered by a variety of elements which frequently play their role in combination (Wang et al. 2013). The medical terminology for this combination of elements is known as Obesogenic environment. The most common roots of childhood obesity are a sedentary lifestyle, deficiency ofphysical activities, unhealthy nutritional habit, genetic influences or a combination of factors. Only in exceptional cases, childhood obesity is triggered by medical circumstances such as a hormonal imbalance. One of the major risk factors for childhood obesity is the obesity of both mother and father. This may be reflected by the environment and genetic composition of the family. Other causes may be due to psychological issues and the body type of the child (Karnik and Kanekar 2015). Child obesity probably is the consequence of the interaction of natural selection esteeming those withmore parsimonious energy metabolismand consumerist civilization of present day with easy access to hi gh-calorie junk foods and a smaller amount of energy expenditure in everyday life (Papoutsi 2013). Elements consist of the upturn in the usage of technology, escalation in unhealthy snacking and serving proportions of meals, and the reduction in the physical activity of children (Goran 2016). Some studies found kids those use electronic devices three or more than three hours a day possess seventeen to forty-four percent increased the risk of being overweight, or a ten to sixty-one percent increased the risk of obesity. Total diet and physical activity level of a child plays a significant role in shaping a weight of that child. Nowadays, maximum children spend more time being sedentary. For instance, many children spend almost four hours every day watching television. As video games and computers becoming increasingly popular, the amount of inactivity is also increasing (Gurnani et al. 2015). Effects on Health Obese children are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disorders like high blood pressure and high level of cholesterol. According to many research findings, seventy percent of obese children have as a minimum of a single risk factor for cardiovascular disorders (Karnik and Kanekar 2015). As stated by Sahoo et al. 2016 and many other authors, childhood obesity can also lead to life-threatening situations such as severe heart disorders, cancer, and other complications. Obese children are more likely to be pre-diabetics, a health complication in which blood sugar ratio indicates a higher possibility of developing diabetes. Children who are overweight are at bigger risks for joint and bone disorders, sleep apnea and societal and psychological glitches such as stigmatization and deprived self-esteem (Gurnani et al. 2015). Obese children are likely to grow as obese as adults and are consequently at more risk for adult health problems such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and different types of cancers (Goran 2016 and Sahoo et al. 2016).Few studies indicated that children who turn into obese at an early age of two years are more likely to be obese adults (Barton 2012). Obesity and overweight are connected with amplified threat for many categories of malignancy, including cancer of the colon, breast, oesophagus, endometrium, pancreas, kidney, thyroid, gallbladder, cervix, ovary, and prostate as well as Hodgkins lymphoma and multiple myelomas (Stewart and Wild 2016). Preventive Interventions for Childhood Obesity This report emphases on childhood obesity prevention strategies which are directed at preventing kids from acquiring excess body mass and decreasing their chances of developing obesity. Interventions to inhibit childhood obesity target to change dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activities (Gortmaker et al. 2015). As these interventions vary considerably depending on the settings, this report is organized on the primary settings where the interventions can be implemented. School-Based Interventions These interventions took place principally in schools though they might include parents, community and home activities. Evidence showed that school-based physical activities and diet programs moderately prevent overweight and obesity in children (Gortmaker et al. 2015). The grade of the interventions can be implemented from play school, primary schools, middle schools to high schools (Wang et al. 2013). Most of these interventions target both physical activity and nutritional habits even though there are some interventions that focus on an only individual aspect such as watching television or limiting consumption of carbonated beverages (Gortmaker et al. 2015) or increasing physical training period in schools. Physical activity related interventions impact on BMI, circumference of waist and body fat percentage. These interventions are designed to prevent weight gain by decreasing sedentary behavior, promoting involvement in physical activities and improving fundamental movement skill s among children (Who.int 2016). School-based interventions are most effective when conducted for a duration of 52-156 weeks. The effect of a combined nutritional and physical activity intervention on obese children can be very effective. These interventions should include intensive classroom exercise instructions led by proficient educators, vigorous to moderate physical training sessions, nutritional educations, and promotion of healthy diet habit (Wang et al. 2013). Children who follow long-term interventions generally show significant positive changes in systolic blood pressure lowering, physical performances, reduced the risk of cardiovascular diseases, lower sedentary activities, increased vegetable and fruit consumption and reduced intake of carbonated drinks (Gortmaker et al. 2015). Several pieces of evidence have demonstrated that physical activity interventions and combined physical activity and diet interventions within school-based situations with a home constituent inhibit overweight and obesity in children. Few studies showed significant improvements in BMI and prevalence of obesity and overweight in the school-based setting with a community component. Interventions focused on weight gain prevention, education and making structural changes to promote physical activity were found to be effective (Wang et al. 2013). Home-Based Interventions Home-based interventions can be implemented in the home of the children. For example, these strategies include interventions to alter the food products purchased for home and family fitness etc. (Wang et al. 2013). Home-based interventions are not effective as much as the school-based interventions but when designed properly they can also deliver healthy lifestyle and eating habit which certainly have a significant role in the childhood obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. In home-based interventions, parents are provided with instructions to help their kids to develop healthy eating habits and make them understand the benefits of being physically active (Sung?Chan et al. 2013). Children must take part in minimum sixty minutes of physical activities with moderate-intensity every day if possible. Parents can set a great example for their children. Adding physical activity to the parents daily routine can encourage the kids to participate (Showell et al. 2013). Children spend most of their sedentary time in their home. Parents are recommended to reduce sedentary time by limiting television watching, internet surfing video game. Children must not spend more than two hours a day in front of internet, television or video game (Knowlden and Sharma 2012). Community-Based or Environment-Level Interventions These include interventions provided by the implementation of legislations and policy or by modifications to build environment. These interventions include communication with the community such as church groups. The strength of evidence is insufficient in case of community-based interventions. However, evidence suggested that a combination of physical activities and nutritional interventions, when implemented at the community level with some school component can effectively prevent overweight and obesity in children. Building environment and designing communities to encourage physical activities is important (Wang et al. 2013). Communities should make available places where children can perform outdoor activities, mainly within their residential neighborhoods, and where they can safely walk, travelor ride cycles to destinations such as the playgrounds, parks, or schools. Since modifications to the built environment can improve prospects for children and teens to securely play outside and be more physically energetic, such modifications are a serious constituent of any action intervention to prevent childhood obesity. These interventions involve local governments, in association with the community groups and private developers to confirm that each neighbourhood has well-designed and safe recreational amenities and other facilities for physical activity for the children (Bleich et al. 2013). Communities may necessitate such environmental features in new developments and custom innovative methods to retrofit current neighborhoods. Moreover, native governments must confirm that paths are constructed to encourag e safe bicycling, walking, and other physical activities within the community and the neighborhood. Residents also have an accountability to advocate for modifications in policies disturbing their localities. Native administrations and school authorities should confirm that kids have safe bicycling paths and way of walking between their houses and schools and that they are motivated to use them. Interventions to support safe walking and bicycling to schools need to be adopted by the communities. One such intervention is the walking school bus program in which one or more guardians walk to school with and manage a group of children from the locality (Wang et al. 2013). According to Bleich et al. 2013, local administrations should effort together with the community clusters, native farmers, non-profitable establishments, food processors and local trades to maintain multi-sectoral partnerships and linkages that increase the accessibility of nutritious foodstuffs within walking distance. Such interventions can increase healthy food selections at local grocery stations, markets, and restaurants, and they will assure a wide assortment of community food-security inventiveness that increases access to nutritional foods for the children. Conclusion In is clear that preventing childhood is very much significant. Children are future of every nation. Thus, it is essential to secure their health and well-being. Several interventions are there to prevent this global epidemic. There are many effective interventions and legislative policies for childhood obesity prevention and control. Among the three types of interventions, it is observed that school-based interventions are most effective in childhood obesity prevention. Appropriate school-based interventions can cause noteworthy affirmative changes in reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, systolic blood pressure lowering, physical performances, lower sedentary activities, increased vegetable and fruit consumption and reduced intake of carbonated drinks. The community-based interventions can also be effective but their implementation is much more complex. Home-based interventions alone are not effective as an adequate prevention measure. School-based interventions together with ho me and community settings can bring significant changes in childhood obesity prevention. Childhood obesity risk can be diminished by educating parents and children about healthy diet and inspiring them for physical activities. Sustainability of these interventions is an important element so that children can take on these healthy habits as a lifetime practice and have a healthy lifestyle. Successful implementation of these interventions will lead to a nationwide healthy prospect for the children. References Aihw.gov.au. (2016).Overweight and obesity (AIHW). Barton, M., 2012. Childhood obesity: a life-long health risk.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica,33(2), pp.189-193. Bleich, S.N., Segal, J., Wu, Y., Wilson, R. and Wang, Y., 2013. Systematic review of community-based childhood obesity prevention studies.Pediatrics, pp.peds-2013. Goran, M.I. ed., 2016. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Consequences, and Intervention Approaches. Gortmaker, S.L., Wang, Y.C., Long, M.W., Giles, C.M., Ward, Z.J., Barrett, J.L., Kenney, E.L., Sonneville, K.R., Afzal, A.S., Resch, S.C. and Cradock, A.L., 2015. 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